In the above chapter the author speaks about various historical arguments regarding the definition of art in the context of how the technology has changed the way people perceive art as predicted by Andy Warhol “In the future everyone will be world-famous for fifteen minutes.” The author takes an example of Bouguereau’s painting ‘Blind homer with guide’ and how these visual works raise questions about what is an art? Who is an artist? What is the role of the viewer? And how images play a prominent role in raising awareness about the things that surrounds us such as images of power, religious images, images of desire. The author progresses instructively first with Greeks considering the visual art as copying or mimesis and the nineteenth-century theorists promoting the art as communication evoking feelings in the viewer to the twentieth century considering the idea of art as significant form shared by aesthetically pleasing objects and the present world believing the institutional theory of art where an object is determined as art by the persons acting on behalf of the artworld. Though any of these doesn’t take art further, the author points that every individual perceives the wold differently, and science is the process of mapping these perceptions into mental pictures, thus science moves the concepts from world into the mind whereas “art moves ideas from the mind into the world” so both science and art are important to exist in the world which are both important for human activity for science to observe and art to express. Finally the author concludes saying that each of us must answer ourselves the question ‘What art really is.”
Pater, R. (2016). The politics of design : A (not so) global manual for visual communication. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: BIS.
Key words: Symbols, Icons, Graphic design, Visual Language, Neutrality, Equality, Politics, Peace, Logotypes, Elementary symbols.
The text is about the role the graphic design undertook in political landscape as symbols and icons. The author starts with Otto Neurath, who created a picture language for multilingual audience called International System of Typographic Pictures (ISOTYPE). He eliminated the details to form a simplified form of pictures. This conveyed information to all layers of society irrespective of their language barrier. The ISOTYPE system was neutral in its structure eliminating difference in race, culture and gender. The popularity of swastika and skull among people marks the use of strong graphic effect. On the other hand, the peace symbol designed in 1958 by British textile designer Gerald Holtom for the anti-nuclear movement became one of the most popular symbols ever created. It was used in 1960s and 1970s anti-Vietnam and ‘ban the bomb’ protests and in 1973 during anti-Apartheid protests. Later came the Logotypes and Archetypes which uses elementary shapes such as – the circle, the arrow, the square and the cross. In the early days the circle symbolised the sun, moon, the cycles and seasons of nature. The square represented an enclosed space. The arrow finds its roots in hunter gatherer cultures and the cross was used by Egyptians as a symbol of life or living. Later the system of icons was adopted by the International Standard of Organization (ISO) for universal communication needs. From then the role of icons changed drastically. They are used in many countries as symbols of a political party which helps the illiterate voters to cast their vote.
Gingeras, A., Centre Georges Pompidou, Kunsthalle Wien, & Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt. (2002). “Dear Painter, paint me– ” : Painting the figure since late Picabia. Paris: Centre Pompidou.
Key words: Painting, contemporary, Contextual, Allegory, Figurative, Landscape, memory, Perception, Hierarchy.
The text covers the interview of Neo Rauch by Alison. He sees the process of painting as discovering one’s own natural form in a concentrated flow which is almost as natural as breathing. The cognitive biases and mental models that he had adopted during his childhood constituted most of his work. So, can be therefore modifiable to a certain extent only. Moreover, for a painting to reveal itself as a memorable and unsettling expression it has to become an autonomous and auratic aggregate. He says that the essence of his painting lies in perception of his workshop as a catch basin for the flotsam of thoughts during his half-awake moments. They rearrange themselves into a new body of work. The visual condensate formed by his memory influx and the perception of the world brings surprising and unpredictable intensity of expression to his work. He also states that he refrains from any hierarchies and conscious evaluation of thoughts in his memory lane. Thus, leading to the generation of intermingled conglomerates of surprising plausibility in his paintings. Because of his figurative style of paintings in landscape form – it becomes hard to guess for an audience in what place and time these paintings were created. The characteristics that Neo believes are important for his paintings are suggestiveness and timelessness which captivates the audience in their rational behaviour and provides them an opportunity to diverge from the course of reason. He finally points the prominence of risk taking into an uncharted territory which elevates a person ability to excel.
Maldonado, D. V. H. (2017). Sam Durant speaks about the aftermath of his controversial Minneapolis sculpture. Retrieved from https://hyperallergic.com/390552/sam-durant-speaks-about-the-aftermath-of-his-controversial-minneapolis-sculpture/
Keywords: Controversy, Context, Educational, White supremacy, Protest, Community, Museum, Censorship, Racism.
The web article is about Sam Durant’s response to the protest against his controversial sculpture called ‘Scaffold.’ “Which alludes to several historical gallows used in hangings sanctioned by US government between 1859 and 2006” (Maldonado, 2017). One of them is the representation of US-Dakota war of 1862 where native Dakota men were hung by US officials. Sam took responsibility on himself and lamented that there was a clear disparity between everyday life and “the art world.” He showed the angst over social media which encouraged the white nationalists to laud the sculpture as a ‘trophy’ of white supremacy over native Americans. And the rise of racial slurs and threats over native Americans who were protesting on the grounds. He pointed out the lack of community outreach by Walker Art Centre before the installation of artwork. If the community members were pre-informed about the context or the subject matter the result would have been different – as happened in case of Kara Walker exhibition before. He realizes that the abstract symbols can be just as powerful as the objective images by recalling the Dana Schutz painting – Emmett Till at Whitney Biennial museum which was subjected to similar controversy. He exclaims that the spread of misinformation degraded the sculpture into real violence and no body understood the sculpture as it is intended to be. Though the controversy is settled down after the mediations between the artist, museum and the tribal elders. After looking at the whole scenario the author questions Who’s allowed to talk about what? And identifies the systemic failure of representation of a work and the disconnect that established between the artworld and the rest of the world.
Vartanian, H. (2017). Curator Nato Thompson on politics and the state of social practice art. Retrieved from https://hyperallergic.com/407599/curator-nato-thompson-on-politics-and-the-state-of-social-practice-art/
Keywords: Public art, Critique, Artists, Gentrification, Neoliberalism, Neighbourhood, Democratic, Socially engaged art.
The article is an interview with the curator Nato Thompson on politics and the state of social practice art. He opines that in the past 10 years there is growing awareness in public art. City governments along with the museums and galleries have actively participated in promoting this kind of art. And museums would be an essential place for critical conversations around urban environment. On response to Neoliberalism creeping into the art world Thompson says that only a certain amount of people in the artworld are actually benefitted by Neoliberalism. And he cannot find much social engagement in the commercial world. But, he is really interested in the socially engaged work done in the neighbourhoods around cities. He sees the role of artist as a dream maker in the modern civil society. Some examples would be Ai Weiwei, Banksy and Kara Walker whose influence on the global issues is very pronounced because of their audience on a mass scale. Speaking about the contemporary art practice in the internet world he says “It used to be that it was either in the New York Times, Artforum, or the Whitney Biennial. If it wasn’t one of those three, it didn’t matter in the United States. That’s clearly not the case anymore” (Vartanian, 2017). The visibility of art is extended to a great extent. And finally, he admits that people are embracing the social art and artists are also choosing to do things based on what they are interested in rather than what people think is interesting.
King, S., & Chang, K. (2016). Understanding industrial design: principles for UX and interaction design. ” O’Reilly Media, Inc.”.
Keywords: Interaction, Human-centered design, Industrial revolution, Behavior, Technology, Context, Revolution, Digital, Information.
The text is about the evolution of interaction design since Industrial revolution and its advancements in the age of personal computing. At a time when people need goods they made it themselves but it has changed now. Industrial revolution found its way in mass producing goods that optimised “function, value, and appearance for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer” (King & Chang, 2016). The designers were challenged to meet the needs of users on a large-scale balancing functionality, ergonomics, aesthetics, cost, durability, manufacturability and marketability. With the rise of consumer culture post World War II, manufacturing goods were most intertwined with national pride and economic revolution. Later Design as a field emerged into many specific areas such as Design for business, Design for people, Design for technology, Design for context and with the emergence of electronics it Unfolded into new territory which is Design for Behaviour. Where the behaviours of users and their interaction with a computer mattered most. Then evolved the Graphical User Interface which acted as a catalyst in bringing design to a software. Bill Moggridge along with Bill Verplank coined the term “interaction design” to distinguish design that focuses mainly on digital experiences from traditional industrial design. As the role of software diverged into new territories interaction designers were challenged to gain knowledge in Psychology, Sociology, Communication studies, and Computer Science. The launch of World Wide Web created new forms of interaction and new possibilities for interactive visual expression. Today Interaction design emerged as a whole new discipline creating endless opportunities for designers as well as people.
Poynor, R. (2001). Obey the giant : Life in the image world. London : Basel: August ; Birkhäuser.
Keywords: Visual communicators, Design, Printing, Industrial artists, Creative revolution, Persuasion, Information, Contemporary, Advertising, Posters, Promotion.
The text explains about how the design is deeply rooted into our everyday life. And the designers being at the forefront of manufacturing contemporary reality. These days the user perceives to be directly engaged with the content of the magazine or a commercial. The image the designer brings to a product using shape, colour, type in seducing users elucidates the power of a design. The author also speaks about Ken Garland the publisher of First Things First manifesto. Where he challenged the designers of his time by campaigning against Nuclear Disarmament using his graphic posters. One classic example of this is his Aldermaston to London Easter 62 poster with its huge marching CND symbol. At a time when most of the visual designers were drawn towards advertising, promotion and packaging, the manifesto put forth the responsibility of design ‘to struggle for a better life for all by dealing with problems of the society.’ The manifesto draws a distinctive line between being design as communication (providing necessary information) and design as persuasion (trying to get users buy things). The British designer Jock Kinneir agreed by saying “Designers oriented in this direction are concerned less with persuasion and more with information, less with income brackets and more with physiology, less with taste and more with efficiency, less with fashion and more with amenity. They are concerned in helping people to find their way, to understand what is required of them, to grasp new processes and to use instruments and machines more easily” (Poynor, 2001). Thus, the article establishes the graphic design as a driver of social change and social innovation.
Designkit. (n.d.). Make it real – Prototyping. Retrieved from https://www.designkit.org/methods/34
Keywords: Prototype, Iterate, Human-centred design, Empathy, Ideate, experience.
The article is about the significance of prototyping in developing Human-centred design solutions that cater for real needs of the people. Prototyping helps to bring the ideas out of the mind. And reduces the risk of failure of a product which involves lots of resources and money. The act of prototyping involves building, testing, learning and iterating. The four stages of the process provide genuine feedback by stepping into the real-world experience of people using it. This drives the idea forward to make it a better experience.
The key concepts of prototyping are
a. Keeping it simple & scrappy to start
By focusing on the specific part of the idea initially, helps to narrow down on the answers to questions about the concept and experience
b. Not getting too attached to the idea
There is no one right solution to a problem. By getting attached to the idea means missing out on the exploration of problem which can lead to a surprising and exciting solution.
c. Making as many prototypes as you can
Having many variations of a prototype allows the designer to be open minded and flexible enough to change the idea to provide a more effective experience.
d. Listening to the audience.
To create a truly valuable solution it is important to get a quality feedback from the people you’re designing for.
There are many types of prototypes that a designer can follow
a. Physical prototypes (which involves function and form).
b. Service prototypes (involves person-to-person interaction and person-to-technology interaction).
c. Environmental prototypes (involves building an experience in the outdoor spaces).
In the end prototyping helps to identity the unmet needs of people and solve them effectively.
Jobey, L. (2016). Hold Still: A History of Performing for the Camera from Nadar to the Selfie. Retrieved from https://momus.ca/hold-still-a-history-of-performing-for-the-camera-from-nadar-to-the-selfie/
Keywords: Camera, Performance, Selfie, Exhibition, Photograph, Theatre, Stereotype.
The text explores how the camera and performance co-related from the mid 19th century to the present. The artists over the years manoeuvred the camera to record, construct, reflect, enable and frame their work. From half-naked photograph of Hippolyte Bayard in 1840 to Romain Mader marriage photograph of 2012 the author bestows the transformation process of performance photography over the years. The first photograph of theatre “Adrien tournachon pierrot surprise” – 1840 is considered as an “early production still” by the Tate’s head of photography and curator of the show Simon Baker. Which took to its extreme in late 19thcentury by American Fred Holland Day in re-creating the life of Jesus through his work. By the late 1970’s Photography changed dramatically empowering women to create artificial images posessing stereotypical potential which are critiqued as “the photographic activity of post-modernism.” At the later stage, photography ventured into different forms such as video, installation, body art and land art. Whereas, consumerism, advertising, celebrity culture became the places to explore further. At the same time photography became a tool to portray an idea. Artists uncovered the social, political and economic issues exploring identity, gender and media manipulation. This is era where camera is considered as an instrument to document and uphold pictures of various artworks and events which are not intended to just hang on the museum walls. Later artists traversed into different genres of photography such as odours, touch, chairs, food, lights, movies, dogs which was already predicted by Allan kaprow in his essay “The legacy of Jackson pollock” – 1958.
Mills, C. M. (2009). Materiality as the basis for the aesthetic experience in contemporary art. Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 1289. University of Montana. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.umt.edu/etd/1289
Keywords: Aesthetics, Art, Art history, Contemporary art, Materiality.
Material – Paracetamol tablet strip
“The aesthetic experience is evoked first through art’s physical components, and then through an intellectual engagement with materiality in the broad sense, through time” (Mills, 2009).
I choose this quote because it tells how time plays its part in engaging a user towards an art project.
Materiality – It is made up of plastic and aluminum foil.
Taste – It is bitter in taste
Touch – The feel of it is hard, with some texture to it, rough edges, it is flexible as well, it produces sound on playing with it.
Memory – I had 6 years of memories associated with it doing my Bachelors and Masters of pharmacy. I went back in time remembering all my friends and the funny things we did -Fights, sports, movies, parties, jokes, revenges, heart breaks. It reminds me that I’m not the same person. All of my friends got married and have children. They became adults but still I never lost the child in me. while I’m writing this there were tears in my eyes and my heart is heavy.
Structure – It is made using the pressing, moulding and punching machine.
Historical / Traditional use – It is been traditionally used to treat aches and fever and it has got its historical roots in chemistry.
Psychological response – It reminds me of my sick days and days in hospitals.
Personal Associations – Tablet punching machine is my favorite in all of pharmacy. I used to be in the front of operating the machine at college.
Sociological and Cultural Implications – It is closely associated with everyone in the society now-a-days. everyone has some at home, it has become a must.
Related family of things – plants, herbs and tress, some fungi and bacteria.